Chapter 10 Science Vocabulary

  1. weathering- The process by which rock materials are broken down by the action of physical and chemical processes.
  2. mechanical weathering- The breakdown of rock into smaller pieces by physical means.
  3. chemical weathering- the process by which rocks break down as a result of chemical reactions.
  4. acid precipitation- rain, sleet, or snow that contains a high concentrations of acids.
  5. differential weathering- The process by which softer, less weather resistant rocks wear away and leave harder, more weather resistant rocks behind.
  6. soil- a loose mixture of rock fragments, organic material, water and air that can support the growth of vegetation.
  7. parent rock- a rock formation that is the source of soil.
  8. bedrock- the layer of rock beneath the soil.
  9. soil texture- the soil quality that is based on the proportions of soil particles.
  10. soil structure- the arrangement of soil particles.
  11. humus- the dark, organic material formed in soil from the decayed remains of plants and animals.
  12. leaching- the removal of substances that can be dissolved from rock, ore, or layers of soil due to the passing of water.
  13. soil conservation- a method to maintain the fertility of the soil by protecting the soil from erosion and nutrient loss.
  14. erosion- the process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transport soil and sediment from one location to another.
  15. abrasion- the grinding and wearing a way of rock surfaces through the mechanical action of other rock or sand particles.
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